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Age Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD):
Modifiable Factors that may Decrease the Risk of Progression to
Advanced Forms of ARMD

· Smoking
Smoking can increase risk of ARMD by as much as 2.4X
· Diet
Increasing the consumption of foods rich in certaincarotenoids, in particular dark green, leafy vegetables, may decrease the risk of progression
Increased intake of breads & cereals (e.g. Oatmeal, whole meal/grain breads) may lower risk of early ARMD
Higher total fat intake increases the risk of progression to the advanced forms of ARMD
Higher red meat intake may increase the risk of progression to the advanced forms of ARMD
Higher fish intake (at least 2x per week ) has been associated with as much as a 50% lower risk of ARMD progression
Higher intake of nuts can reduce the risk of ARMD progression
Daily serving of fruits or vegetables that are yellow/orange in color reduce risk
Heavy alcohol consumption (more than three standard drinks per day) maybe associated with an increased risk of early age-related macular degeneration (ARMD)

· Vitamins & Supplements
AREDS 2 supplements: lowers the risk by about 25- 35%
Vitamin E 400 IU
Vitamin C 500 mg
Zinc 25 mg (Caution in men with prostate symptoms)
Copper 2 mg
A high dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids has been associated with a 38 % reduction in the risk of late ARMD
The largest and most recent study (AREDS 2 Study) however, showed no benefit of omega-3 fatty acids in reducing the risk of late ARMD
Higher intake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) &eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) may significantly reduce the risk of advanced AMD
Higher intake of DHA & EPA however was shown by theAREDS 2 Study to be of no benefit in reducing the risk of late ARMD
Daily intake of Vitamin D may be protective against ARMD, especially in women; reducing risk of ARMD by up to 50%
Daily intake of Vitamin B6 (50 mg), Folic acid (2.5 mg) & Vitamin B12 (1 mg) may be protective against ARMD, especially in women; reducing risk of ARMD by up to 30%
Lutein & zeaxanthin supplementation has also been shown to reduce risk of progression by up to 50% and may partially reverse the loss of visual function in early ARMD patients.
· Aspirin

Regular consumption of Aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) may decrease the risk of progression
Patients who take aspirin daily are possibly up to 2X more likely to have late stage macular degeneration than those who never take aspirin.
· Weight & Exercise

Overall and abdominal obesity increases the risk for progression to advanced ARMD
High blood pressure and elevated cholesterol increases the risk for progression to advanced ARMD
More physical activity tends to decrease risk.
lower incidence of ARMD in those who practice vigorous running

· Sunlight & Ultraviolet light

Several studies have shown that there are no deleterious effects of sunlight exposure in ARMD
Other studies have shown an association between other sunlight aggravated eye conditions and ARMD
The largest and most recent review of all the studies, does show an association between sunlight exposure as a risk factor for ARMD
Overall it is not a bad idea to wear UV absorbing sunglasses and hats in those individuals at risk for developing ARMD

Post Author: radmin